浅谈中学英语时态的用法

时间:2008-04-29 21:58
1.一般现在时的用法
1)表示经常性,习惯性的动作;表示现在的状态,特征 和真理。句中常用often, usually, every day等时间状语,例如:
He goes to school every day. (经常性动作)
He is very happy.(现在的状态)
The earth moves around the sun. (真理)
2)在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,用现在时表示将来,例如:

If you come this afternoon, we’ll have a meeting.

When I graduate, I’ll go to the countryside.

Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped.

3)有时这个时态表示按计划,规定要发生的动作。(句中都带有时间状语词)但仅限于少数动词,如:begin come, leave, go, arrive, start, stop, return, open, close等,例如:

The meeting begins at seven.

The train starts at nine in the morning.

4)表示状态和感觉的动词。如be, like, hate, think, remember, find, sound等常用一般现在时。例如:

I like English very much.

The story sounds interesting.

5)书报的标题,小说等情节介绍常用一般现在时。

2. 一般过去时的用法

1)表示过去某时发生的事,存在的状态或过去反复发生的动作。

He saw Mr.Wang yesterday.

He worked in a factory in 1986.

2)表示过去经常发生的动作,也可用“used to”和“would+动词原形”。例如:

I used to smoke.

During the vacation I would swim in the sea.

注意:used to表示过去常发生而现在不发生的动作或 存在的状态。另外“be used to+名词(动名词)”表示 “习惯于…… ”。例如:

I am used to the climate here.

He is used to swimming in winter.

3. 一般将来时的用法

一般将来时表示将来的动作或状态,其表达形式除了“will或shall+动词原形”外,还有以下几种形式。

1)“to be going to+动词原形”, 表示即将发生的或最近打算进行的事。例如:

It is going to rain.

We are going to have a meeting today.

2)go, come, start, move, sail, leave等可用进行时态表示按计划即将发生的动作。例如:

I’m leaving for Beijing.

3)be to+动词原形”表示按计划要发生的事或征求对方意见。例如:

Are we to go on with this work?

The boy is to go to school tomorrow.

4)“be about to+动词原形”表示即将发生的动作。例如:

We are about to leave.

4. 现在进行时的用法

1)现在进行时表示现在正在进行的动作,由“to be+现在分词”构成。例如:

What are you doing?

2)表示感觉,愿望和状态的某些动词,如have, be, hear, see, like等词一般不用进行时。

5. 过去进行时的用法

1)过去进行时表示过去某一时刻,某一阶段正进行的动作,由“was (were)+现在分词”构成。例如:

In 1980 he was studying in a university.

He was reading a novel when I came in.

6. 现在完成时的用法

现在完成时由“have+过去分词”构成。其使用有两种情况:

1)现在完成时所表示的动作在说话之前已完成,而对现在有影响。句中没有明显时间状语。例如:

He has gone to Fuyang . (说话人认为他不在该地)

He has been to Fuyang. (说话人认为他在该地)

)现在完成时所表示的动作开始于过去,持续到现在,也许还会持续下去。常用for和since表示一段时间的状语或so far, now, today, this week (month, year)等表示包括现在时间在内的状语。例如:

He has studied English for 5 years.

He has studied English since 1985.

Now I have finished the work.

注意:表示短暂时间动作的词,如:come, go, die, marry, buy等的完成时不能与for, since等表示一段时间的词连用。

3)现在完成时还可用在时间和条件状语从句中,表示将来某时完成的动作。例如:

I’ll go to your home when I have finished my homework.

If it has stopped snowing in the morning, we will go to the park.

7. 过去完成时的用法

)过去完成时由“had+过去分词” 构成,过去完成时的动作表示过去某一时刻或某一动作之前完成的动作状态。句中常用by, before, until, when等词引导的时间状语。例如:

By the end of last year we had built five new houses.

I had learnt 5000 words before I entered the university.

2)过去完成时的动词还可表示过去某一时刻之前发生的动作或状态持续到过去某个时间或持续下去。例如:

Before he slept, he had worked for 12 hours.

8)过去将来时的用法

过去将来时表示从过去的某时间看将要发生的动作或状态。过去将来时由“should或would+动词原形”构成。第一人称用should,其他人称用would.例如:

They were sure that they would succeed.


9)现在完成进行时的用法

现在完成进行时由“have (has)+been+现在分词”构成,表示现在以前一直在进行的动作。有些词,如work, study, live, teach等用现在完成进行时与用现在完成时意思差不多。例如:

I have worked here for three years.

I have been working here for three years.

但多数动词在这两种时态中表示不同意思。例如:

I have written a letter(已写完)

I have been writing a letter(还在写)

注意:表示短暂动作的动词,如finish, marry, get up, come go等不能用这种时态。


练习 选择最佳答案填空:

1.We _____ a party next weekend. I hope you can come.

A. have B. will have C. had D. would have

2. I _____ a book at home when I heard a loud noise outside the building.

A. have read B. was reading C. read D. had read

3. -- ____ my glasses?

-- Yes, I saw them on your bed a minute ago.

A. Do you see B. Had you seen

C. Would you see D. Have you seen

4. Helen _____ her key in the office so she had to wait until her husband _____ home.

A. had left; comes B. left; had come

C. had left; came D. had left; would come

5. – Hi, Tracy, you look tired.

-- I am tired. I _____ the living room all day.

A. painted B. had painted C. have been painting D. have painted

6. – You have left the light on.

-- Oh, so I have. _

 相关内容

本页文章:英语教育 - 浅谈中学英语时态的用法