听力策略与听力训练

时间:2008-04-29 21:58
ly be produced in small quantities
Intensive Listening
听力训练的精听一般是在进行了Global listening 或Selectivelistening之后,对所听材料从语言、语 法、 词汇以及语音方面做进一步学习的听力活动。 教师要根据材料的不同难度, 对Globallisteni ng 和Selective listening提出不同的要求。 教师还要根据精听的不同任务,设计不同练习题。精听的目的一 般包括:一是引导学生发现和分析影响听力活动效率的原因;二是帮助学生充分利用所听材料进行语言、语音 知识的学习与积累。这两个方面正是保证听力理解能力提高的重要环节。精听练习题的设计原则如下:
1.将学生的注意力集中到影响听力理解的语言点上;
2.指导学生在理解的基础上学习新的词、词组和句型等语言知识;
3.对词汇在实际运用中的连续等语音变化进行学习。
具体操作请看下例:
Mr. Grey was a biology professor, and he had a bigcollection of extremely rare bones
which he was very proud of. Then one year be managed to get a new and better job atanother
university. Because Mr. Grey was very busy, his wifemade the arrangements for all their posse ssions to be takenin a moving van to their new home while he was away at work.
The following week three men started taking the thingsout of Mr. Grey's house and loadin g them into the van, whenone of them brought out a large wooden box. He was just aboutto thr ow it into the van with all the other things when Mrs.Grey ran out of her house and said, "Ple ase treat that boxvery gently! That one has all my husband's bones in it."
The man was so surprised that he nearly dropped the boxon his feet.
附图{图}
此篇材料略高于目前高一年级学生的水平。材料的难度适合先采用Selective listening听力策略。为了获 得较好的听力效果, 我们让学生借助左图做以下练习:
Listen and write the number of the correct sentence undereach picture:
①A moving van came to the door of Mr. Grey's house.
②He was busy at his office.
③He was going to throw it into the van.
④Mrs. Grey watched while the men loaded the van.
⑤Mr. Grey collected a lot of unusual bones.
⑥Mrs. Grey stopped him, saying it contained her husband's bones.
⑦One of the men brought a big wooden box out of thehouse.
⑧The man nearly dropped it on his feet.
听前对学生提出以下要求:
1.阅读练习中的八个句子;
2.仔细观察练习中的八幅图;
3.小组讨论、预测所要听的故事内容和故事情节之间的关系及可能性;
4.小组对所听内容的重点进行分工,明确每个人听的任务。
通过以上活动,既降低了听力材料的难度,也使学生做了听前的准备。一般情况下,即便有听不懂的地方 ,他们也能捕捉到需要的信息。
精听练习:
1.Listen and answer the following questions.
①Why did Mr. Grey collect a lot of bones?
②What did Mr. Grey do when his wife arranged someworkers to move the boxes out of t heir home?
③Had the worker thrown the box into the van when Mrs.Grey said, "Please treat that box v ery gently"?
④Why was the man so surprised? Did he drop the box onhis feet?
2. Listen and write down the phrases or words which meanthe same as follows:
collected a lot of unusual bones, was able to get,arranged some people to move their
things, putting thingsinto the van
3. Read out the words and phrases you have noted down.And then listen again, paying speci al attention to the waythey sound in the story.
4.Listen to the whole story to enjoy it, without lookingat anything.
精听练习1中的②、③、④可以让学生注意到while, be justabout to 和nearly的用法,问题①要学 生注意并理解bilolgy这个关键词的词意。精听练习2 中的内容基本上是学生在不能捕捉到原有的词时猜到的, 再听的目的是要他们学会一些新的词组,扩大其词汇量。练习3的目的是要学生不仅了解这些词组的词意,而且 要记住其声音, 这种声音的积累在听力训练中同语言的提高和积累同等重要。练习4 可以让学生复习学过的内 容并充分享受听懂英语的乐趣。
三种策略对听力能力的训练各有侧重,教师可根据学生的程度、教材的难度和教学的目标灵活选用。既可 采用其中的一种,也可将三种结合起来使用。决定选用策略的原则是最大限度地调动学生的主动性,促使他们 能够积极主动地去听。如果学生在每次听力训练中都能获取新的知识和新的感受,他们便会对听产生兴趣。只 有在学生主动参与时,听力训练才可能产生最好的教学效果。

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