如何培养中学生的阅读能力

时间:2008-04-29 21:58
《中学英语教学大纲》中规定:中学英语教学要“侧重培养阅读能力”。因此培养阅读能力越来越被广大 中学师生所重视。然而,有些学生尽管读了一些课外读物,做了许多理解练习题,但阅读理解能力仍不见提高 。语言水平低当然是一个主要原因,没有一定的语言能力就谈不上阅读能力。但是,除了语法、词汇、句型结 构这些语言因素外,影响阅读理解的,还有一些非语言知识的因素,如逻辑推理、评价判断能力,以及背景知 识的多寡等等。
阅读理解首先应搞清词义。一个英语单词往往有多种含义,而它的具体含义只有在句子中才能确定。因此 ,在文段中确定单词的意思是一项重要的阅读技能。确定单词的意思首先可以根据它的词类和它在句中的位置 来判断。例如:only这个词,用作形容词时意为“唯一的”、“仅有的”,用作副词时作“只是”、“仅”、 “不过”解。请看下面的句子,注意only的位置。
1.Only he lost his dictionary.只有他丢了字典。
2.He only lost his dictionary.他只丢了字典。
3.He lost only his dictionary.他丢的只是他的字典。
4.He lost his only dictionary.他丢了他唯一的一本字典。
5.He lost his dictionary only.他不过丢了字典而已。
判断一个单词的意思不但离不开句子,而且还需要把句子放在上下文中,根据上下文提供的线索加以猜测 。下面介绍几种猜测词意的方法(请猜划线的单词)。
一、同义词线索
I did not have a roll on my plate,but I do not like bread very much anyway.我盘子里没有面包圈 ,反正我也不喜欢吃面包。
从后半句可以看出,说话人不喜欢吃面包。可见roll也是一种面包。通过bread这个词,可以猜出roll的词 义。
二、环境线索
We are glad that we live near the sea because we love to eat flounder.我们非常高兴住在海边, 因为我们非常爱吃比目鱼。
这句话如果只看后半句,很难判断“flounder”的意思,而从前半句所提供的处所“the sea”,则可推断 出flounder是一种鱼或水产品。
三、用途线索
We like our new house because it has a few elms in the back yardthat will give us shade and keep the house cooler.我们喜欢新家,因为在它的后院有几棵榆树给我们遮阴,使得房子凉爽。
通过elms具有能给房子遮阴、使房子凉爽的作用,我们不难猜出elms是一种树。
四、对比线索
She is usually prompt for all her classes but today she arrivedin the middle of her first cl ass.她一般都是准时上课,但是今天第一节课上了一半她才到。
but一词表示意思的转折,因此but前后的意思应是相反的。后半句的意思是她今天在“第一节课上了一半 时才来”,由此反向推断,可得出她平时一向“准时”的结论。
五、说明线索
Ann is very smart.She always knows the answers to all the teachers'questions.Ann很聪明。她总 是能回答老师们所有的问题。
第二句是对第一句的补充说明,一个能回答老师们所有问题的女孩一定是很“聪明”的。
六、顺序线索
After Ms Ellis put the letter in the envelope,she sealed it andput a stamp on it.Ms Ellis把信 装进信封里,她把信封封上,然后贴上邮票。
寄信时,正常的顺序应是先把信装入信封,封上口,然后贴上邮票。根据前后动作,不难看出seal是“封 口”的意思。
当然,阅读仅靠猜测词义还远远不够。阅读的过程就是推测、判断、证实和再推测、再判断的过程。在阅 读过程中,我们要运用自己的知识及逻辑分析能力,对文段的中心思想、作者的观点、语气、人物的性格、事 实的原由以及文段字里行间暗含的意思进行推测。请看下面的句子。
The doctor gave my sister some medicine,but it didn't change hercondition.
从这句话里我们获取的事实或信息是:
A.My sister didn't like the medicine.
B.My sister took the medicine.
C.The medicine made my sister sick.
D.The medicine changed her condition.
正确答案是B。虽然句子没有直接提到my sister是否吃了药,但从后半句可以得知她显然是吃了药,否则 怎么能知道这药不起作用呢?
有时猜测和判断还涉及概括能力。例如:
The teacher said that we should study Lesson 4 and do Exercise 2on page 17 because we may ha ve a test tomorrow.
What did the teacher do?
A.Studied for a test.
B.Gave homework.
C.Prepared a test.
D.Opened the book to page 17.
正确答案是B。通过对所说的话进行总结概括,不难看出,教师是在布置作业。
有时推测还需要简单的计算。例如:
This class meets on Monday,Wednesday,and Friday,and there is a test at every sixth class mee ting.
When are tests?
A.on Monday B.on Wednesday
C.on Friday
D.on the sixth of the month
正确答案是C。这个班每星期一、三、五上课,既然每上第六次课时就有一次考试,所以每次考试总是在星 期五。
另外,阅读时,由于有些学生缺乏幽默感,因此对文章中人物的性格、说话口气的理解往往出现偏差,品 味不出幽默和讽刺的真正含义,以至选错答案。请看下面短文。
The Doctor's Call
There was ice on the road,and the doctor's car hit a tree and turned over three times.To his
surprise,he was not hurt.He got out ofthe car and walked to the nearest house.He wanted to tele phone the garage for help.The door was opened by one of his patients.
“Oh,Doctor,”she said,“I have only just teleplone you.You must have a very fast car.You
have got here very quickly indeed.Therehas been a very bad accident in the road outside.I saw i t through the window.I am sure the driver will need your help.”
1.Where was the doctor going in his car?
A.We don't know. B.To a patient's home.
C.To a garage. D.To his own home.
2.Which of the following was the cause of the accident?
A.Careless driving.
B.A tree had fallen across the road.
C.A slippery road.
D.There was a thick fog.
3.The doctor went to the house because_______________.
A.he knew one of his patients lived there
B.he had received a call to go there
C.he wanted to use the telephone
D.he was injured and could walk no further
4.Why did the woman patient telephone the doctor?
A.She needed medical treatment.
B.She believed somebody else needed a doctor.
C.To ask how quickly the doctor could come.
D.To ask whether the doctor was coming on his regular visit.
5.How did the woman feel on opening the door and seeing the do
ctor?
A.She had been expecting the doctor,but was surprised that h
e had come so quickly.
B.She had not expected the doctor and wondered why he had co
me.
C.She felt glad that the doctor was not hurt in the accident.
D.She was alarmed at seeing the doctor in a bad state after
the accident.

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